Cronenbergs are genetically-mutated creatures made accidentally by Rick in the episode Rick Potion No. 9 when he tried to turn the "Mantis-people" back into regular Humans. Everyone on Earth became Cronenbergs except for Jerry, Beth, and Summer. Despite being a side effect from the antidote, there is a whole universe of Cronenbergs which was "cured" by Cronenberg Rick and Cronenberg Morty. In The Rickshank Rickdemption, it has been shown that Jerry, Beth, and Summer have been subsisting on Cronenberg meat for some time. This indicates that, up until that point, at least a small population of Cronenbergs survived since the date of their mutation.
The word/name Cronenberg is a reference to Canadian filmmaker, screenwriter, actor, and director David Cronenberg. This is due to the fact that Cronenberg is one of the originators of the "body horror" genre in which the style of filmmaking explores people's fears of bodily transformation and infection.
Near the ending of "Auto Erotic Assimilation", the frozen alien that Rick destroyed with the lazer is shown to be a Cronenberg. This suggests that Rick was still trying to cure Cronenberg mutation and also suggests that he gave up on the idea.